Nepal was known as the Kathmandu valley in the historical period. It was divided into 22-24 mini states ruled by various kings. The history of Nepal is mostly dominated by the Kathmandu valley. It is an independent political and territorial entity. Even during the East India's reign in India, Nepal was never overruled by another country or institutions. The recorded history began in the 14th century with the Gopala's dynasty, who were the cow herders. Then the Mahispal dynasty ruled the country, who kept buffaloes and buffalo herding was their profession. The written history that was scripted in the Changu Narayan temple dates back to the Lichhavi dynasty, by King Manadeva I (C 464-505 A.D.)
Around 250 AD, Lichhavi people came from India. King Mandeva was the first King of this dynasty. Various notable deeds had taken place during that time. Anshuverma opened trade routes to Tibet and Mandeva's daughter Bhrikuti married with the Tibetan leader Tsrong-tsong Gompo, by which the Buddhism spread throughout the Tibet and China. Another Lichhavi leader Narendradeval is remembered to have established the matrimonial relationship with India.
After the Lichhavi dynasty, Malla dynasty begun. It began in the 12th century with the Ari Malla, the first leader of this dynasty. Up to the 14th century, there was a large empire before it was divided into various mini states. Baisi and chaubisi (22-24 mini states) rajya began after the Malla dynasty.
Jayasthiti Malla, was the ruler in the Kathmandu valley, who brought the distinct social and economic changes and reformations among which, 'Sanskritization' is a prominent one. At that time, Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Patan were separate independent states. During the Malla regime, various interstate wars begun after the demise of Jayasthiti Malla. Jaya Prakash Malla was the last ruler of Kathmandu.
The unification of Nepal began in the Shah dynasty when King Prithvi Narayan Shah came into power. He was the son of King Nara Bhupal Shah in the western Nepal, Gorkha district. Prithvi Narayan Shah was a visionary and a brave leader and fighter, who eventually unified Nepal from 22-24 mini states into a single nation. The war between Nepali soldiers and the British East India company further strengthen Nepali power and brilliant war policy. In 1769, Kathmandu was overruled by Prithvi Narayan Shah, which became the capital city of Nepal.
Society was divided on the basis of work principle. Four specific divisions as Brahmins, Chhetriyas, Baisyas and Sudras are classified. Prithvi Narayan Shah managed mutual cooperation in the societies. He said Nepal is a country of a garden with various flowers.
King Prithvi Narayan Shah was successful in bringing together diverse religious ethnic groups under one national. He was a true nationalist in his outlook and was in favor of adopting a closed-door policy with regard to the British. Not only his social and economic views guided the country's socioeconomic course for a long time, his use of the imagery, 'a yam between two bouldersÕ in Nepal's geopolitical context, formed the principal guideline of the country`s foreign policy for future centuries.